David Calder Hardy's Cosmology

Better Big Bang or

A more Believable Singularity

A New Singularity Theory {If this is funny it's also serious - If this is serious it's also funny}

How to Have a Singularity and get Rid of the Problems Existing with the Old 'One and Only' Cumbersome Singularity

The Biggest Bang
Somewhere away in shrunken space
Light years away from earth
Within a microscopic place
A singularity gave birth
It was a huge explosion
The grandest sole event
And so has Science chosen
This blast as Heaven sent (DCH)

One singularity? You've got to be kidding. How about trillions and trillions and trillions of singularities. And I can hear all those voices out there shouting 'Contradiction in terms'. - but wait, impatience will get you nowhere! Here is a Better Big Bang - called BBB for short.

Once upon a time, for every cubic centimetre of space there were more or less one million singularities, and they all looked just the same. They had a very special problem, and that is they were repulsive. - Now don't get me wrong because I don't mean in an offensive way; it's just that they repelled each other. (I'm calling them singularities because they are/were the smallest indivisible particle).

Now when I say that they were all over space, I mean that they were not confined, as in a stretchy bladder or that they were locked up in a box or a cage, or whatever. I mean the space they were in was infinite, therefore it had no boundaries what so ever.

At this point, I must add that the following happened only once countless trillions of years ago - countless trillions of years ago - countless trillions of years ago.

No don't start banging the question; how did they get there? Because I don't know, anymore than anyone knows how the Establishment's Big Bang singularity got where it was, wherever it was. So cut the unanswerable cackle and let's get on with the show.

Because we are dealing with a space/universe that is infinite, we don't have to worry about all the incongruities of it being contained inside something and expanding out into nothingness, and that's great, because that solves a whole host of problems right away. - (Most of them, in fact).

So, what were these 'repulsive' little objects?

· Since they existed before anything else, they were different from everything else that we know of.

· They were, as I said, the smallest indivisible unit of matter, even smaller than a proton. (Now where have I heared that before)?

However, here comes THE singularity, the odd guy, the one and only, without whom, what was about to happen, never would have happened. We owe this little guy everything; and when I say 'everything, I mean 'EVERY THING'. Why?

Answer: Because this 'look alike' was neither repulsive nor attractive. (There's always got to be one, hasn't there? And in the Establishment's theory, there isn't. So there). In all this huge expanse of comparative nothingness this one singularity hung around, probably for trillions of years or perhaps pre-eternally, until an amazing thing happened. (You have to have amazing things happen in cosmology - it's an essential part of the vernacular. All students please heed this warning). Its nucleus was stuck right in the middle of its anatomy for some strange yet miraculous (another vital word) reason, causing it to be neither positive nor negative. You see, all the rest were positive with their nuclei at the positive end of their space containment, whatever that is/was. (Please, don't even mention the word bladder; as anatomy will do quite well, thankyou. You will see why only too soon).

Because other normal singularities often came closer to it because of its lack of polarity power, nothing dramatic happened. They sort of bounced off it, virtually unaware of its presence, and went on their way. However, this one potentially de-stabilising object in the universe meant that something incredible (another essential word) was bound to happen some time. And talking of time, yes, well, it appears to me that there is no excuse or reason here to preclude time pre BBB. QED

For some unaccountable reason, the nucleus freed itself from its mid position and, uncharacteristically, shot the wrong way toward the negative end of its containment. (I'm sure that there are scientists out there who will work out how this happened). One existing theory is that several others impacted with it all at the same time, like an unwarranted gang attack, and that did it, giving our odd-ball a violent blow to its anatomy. (Now you know why I didn't want to use the word, bladder).

In 1 trillionth of a second everywhere exponentially (love that word, so I'm going to place this event's locality right in, what we are going to call, the expo-centre) is caught up in a spreading holocaust. That one flash of energy caused the linking of singularities beyond and beyond and beyond. Here is the one event that happened once, and once only; its speed of action was billions of times faster than the speed of light, and for all we know, it may still be spreading, because it has an infinite capacity to spread into. One may also describe it as 'A Moment'; something that, had it been observable, it took place so rapidly, that if you blinked you would have missed it. (See how easy it is when you haven't got that stupid bladder in the way).

Because it was accelerated as it spread, the resultant newly formed material remained more or less where it was. Like an implosion, the combined particles took up less space, so what once was a million particles per cubic centimetre had now become just several particles per cubic centimetre. But here is another remarkable thing - One couldn't call this event an explosion or an implosion, for the reasons just given, so I'm afraid it will just have to be called a plosion; neither ex. nor im.because it neither blew nor sucked.

So what was the result? Hydrogen of course, both atomic and molecular. (You knew that, didn't you).

As we all know, hydrogen is the most plentiful atom in space, and it's everywhere, even in the deepest, darkest, remotest regions of the universe between galaxies. So this is the beginning of everything we know of, because had hydrogen atoms been the only form of hydrogen created we may have been back to square two with no hope of moving on. (Sorry to have used the word 'created' but I have searched and searched for a more appropriate word and I have failed. Anyway, we have to look at the larger picture, don't we).

Hydrogen atoms are rather unstable little fellows and they have a way of uniting with one another, one to one, and forming into molecules, simply called H2. [This has also been termed, Dark Matter]. Now we have two different objects causing an imbalance to a point where the more massive molecular ones with more gravity, group together in various places, dragging the atomic hydrogen in with them. You can see it happening, can't you - the bully boys versus the little guys. Not all do this, but it's not long before some of these groups get enormous, and the first nebulae are formed, because gravity completely overcomes their independence. But we all know what happens when gangs get overcrowded. - something's going to give….

From here on in, the first nebula collapses and forms a star, quickly followed by more and more. The stars produce families of planets while at the same time radiate their energy and subatomic particles far and wide into the universe. And did all this start 13.7 billion years ago? Rubbish, balderdash, tripe, my eye and Biddy Martin. Anywhere between a trillion and a trillion trillion years ago, and why not?

The rest is observable history and I'm not going to bore you with what you already know only too well. Oddly enough, you and I have a planet, the only one we'll ever own, and we'd better seriously start looking after our 'one and only' wee dot in the universe because it just might lose its marbles and go poooof if we don't reverse the damage we have already done to it. As a reminder of that fate all one has to do is look at Mars. Look hard and imagine that it could well have looked like earth 2.5 billion years ago. Look harder still and see what earth could look like in far less time than that if we continue to abuse it.

Anyway, back to earth, and the problem is we could argue about the timeline existence of the universe until we are blue in the face, and for those of us who are very happy to remain our normal colour, a beginning is not really that important and is just a pain in the neck that we can gladly do with out. But for all those who can't live without there being a beginning, and God only knows why, I hope I've zapped away all the problems with the Establishment's singularity and spread them infinitely everywhere and in so doing, made you all much happier.

This little theory offers reasonable answers:-

…..And a far more logical definition of a singularity, - Big Bang expansion, - the burden of containment, - red shift, - background radiation, - conservation, - why there are so few supernova, - why the centre of the universe can't be located, - that wretched bladder thing - and heaps more.

I think that redshift tells us that radiated energy is being absorbed and is disintegrating as a result, and if it comes from beyond 13.7 billion light-years away it has become completely eroded and absorbed before reaching us. (This is why we think that we are in the centre of a contained universe, - How arrogant can we get?). Background radiation is probably what is left over from galactic radiation emitted from that invisible wall of light, billions more light-years away out there that will never reach us for that reason.

The More Serious Side

The singularity theory has existed, with little modification, since the beginning of the '30s. That it has held sway for all these years, in spite of its failings has to be a miracle. Non-believer scientists look upon it as magic or simply unreal. To be emersed in it professionally for ones whole working life seems unbelievable.

Oddly, the faults are many and most are very basic. One wonders how those pre 2nd world war cosmology scientists managed to keep it alive and sufficiently credible, but more to the point, how, with huge advances in observational technology, ever since, this theory still reigns supreme.

The point is that BB restricted itself with unnecessary claims that have to be its downfall.
1. Why should the singularity have been so small?
2. Why was there no time-clock ticking before the singularity ignited?
3. Therefore how is the lead up to ignition measured?
4. What caused it to ignite, as it is not suggested that there was an outside influence?
5. When it flew apart, how did it sort itself out into galaxies of stars and planets all within 700 million years?
6. When scientists observe galaxies and their stars 13 billion light-years away at the so-called edge of the universe they are supposed to be the earliest ones in the universe.
7. If their light has taken 13 billion light-years to reach us, in an expanding universe, where are they now, if not another 13 billion light-years further away - or vastly more than that?
8. Why are these earliest galaxies so large and apparently very like our own?
9. Why do we appear to be in the centre of the universe?
10. Why can't we see new galaxies actually being formed beyond those distant galaxies that are up and running?

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