David Calder Hardy's Cosmology
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In cosmogony, the solar nebula is the gaseous cloud (or accretion disc) from which our solar system is believed to have formed. This nebular hypothesis was first proposed in 1755 by Immanuel Kant, who argued that nebulae slowly rotate, gradually condensing and flattening due to gravity, eventually forming stars and planets. A similar model was proposed in 1796 by Pierre-Simon Laplace.
Formation and evolution
The solar nebula is believed to have had an initial diameter of 100 AU and a mass believed to be 2-3 times the Sun's current mass. Over time, gravity caused the cloud to condense and, as density and pressure increased, a protostar emerged at the centre of the nebula. The early system was heated by friction; fusion would not occur for some time. Due to the conservation of angular momentum, the nebula did not fully collapse upon itself, instead forming a disk. Protoplanetary discs emerged in orbit around the protosun.
Within this system, lighter elements such as hydrogen and helium were driven out of the central regions by solar wind and radiation pressure during a highly active T Tauri phase, leaving behind heavier elements and dust particles, which clumped into planetesimals and protoplanets. In the outer part of the solar nebula, ice and volatile gases were able to survive. As a result, the inner planets are formed of minerals, while the outer planets are more gaseous or icy.
After about 100 million years, the heat within the protosun reached such a level that thermonuclear reactions began to occur - the protosun became the Sun. At about the same time, the innermost planets formed, approximately 4.6 billion years ago.
The moons of the gas giants are believed to have formed in a roughly analogous process, coalescing from an accretion disk which formed as the giant planets themselves were forming. In contrast, Earth's moon is believed to have formed in a collision with a Mars-sized object.
Genesis Continuous - Complete
The description of a nebula, of which there are several types, tends to follow the pattern at right in the case of solar nebula. One can understand how a large mass of gas could attract more and more gas, if it is available.That probably goes without saying.
But that is all very well, I cannot find among all the literature available to me, what begins the process. Wouldn't there have to be a gravitationally solid mass to start the ball rolling? In other words shouldn't we expect that loose clouds of hydrogen, if they exist that way, will simply disperse into more rarified gas areas if nothing attracts them to remain in mass?
I suggest that a core is needed to initiate the formation. This is where old released planets, possibly gas giants, play their part in shaping their galaxy. Here is a simple solution to a problem that I believe has not been faced.
Genesis Continuous offers the solution and only recently, to my great delight, 13 gas giants have been discovered in a part of the Milkyway, wandering unattached from a mother star. A gas giant, then, if entering an area where gas, hydrogen, is available is going to collect it and grow. What else?
The whole point of Genesis Continuous is to put a workable foundation in place for continuity of creation. The insertion of old released planets into that format, gives an incredible reason for their existence, beyond being the possible support for life.
Just as the initial formation of nebula may not have been faced before, neither has the fate of old planets. Fortunately for Genesis Continuous, technology has revealed these objects in space at long last. I venture to suggest that there are many, many more planets in every galaxy than there are stars. Additional to that, there will be a lot more moons, that may remain with their planet or may have slipped away on their own and also become the cores of nebula.
There are trillions of stars in the universe and this clearly shows that they are as common as sand in the Sahara. Their birth and their building of planets and moons etc., would appear to be a simple uncomplicated matter. So it would be their planets that keep their population going and presenting us with the shape and mass of the galactic group to which they belong. However, that the odd planet could be released in a direction away from the galaxy, could after many billions of years, offer us a new galaxy..